Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Date of Award




Degree Level


LCSH subject

Counselors -- Training of; Counselors -- Supervision of; Telecommuting; COVID-19 (Disease); Work and family; Work-life balance

Proquest Document ID





St. Mary's University (San Antonio, Tex.)

Document Type


First Advisor

Comstock-Benzick, Dana


The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased popularity, application, and utilization of telework. To vastly reduce the spread of COVID-19, governmental agencies worldwide have implemented lockdowns and emphasized businesses and corporations should implement telework wherever possible (Anderson & Kelliher, 2020; Belzunegui- Eraso & Erro-Garces, 2020; Buomprisco et al., 2021; Chong et al., 2020; Contreras et al., 2020; Mouratidis & Papagiannakis, 2021; Nguyen, 2021; Oz & Crooks, 2020; Raišienė et al., 2020; Tavares et al., 2020). States of emergency can disturb employees’ workflow and lead to financial difficulties; thus, telework presents an option to reduce that disruption. In such unprecedented times, telework may be a beneficial, lifesaving modality (Donnelly & Proctor‐Thomson, 2015). Unfortunately, limited research exists on telework experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between telework intensity and work–family conflict, telework intensity and family–work conflict, and telework intensity and work–family balance during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a total of 201 participants who were at least 18 years of age. All participants lived in the United States and teleworked as a direct result of the pandemic. No statistically significant correlation between telework intensity and work– family conflict, telework intensity and family–work conflict, or telework intensity and work–life balance was found. The Pearson correlation used to examine the relationship among work–family conflict, family–work conflict, work family balance, and COVID- 19 distress found statistically significant negative correlations between family–work conflict and work–family balance, and work–family balance and work–family conflict. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between family–work conflict and work–family conflict, family–work conflict and COVID-19 distress, and work– family conflict and COVID-19 distress.

Keywords: Telework, telework intensity, work–family conflict, family–work conflict, work–family balance, COVID-19 distress, COVID-19 pandemic.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.