Counseling and Human Services

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Date of Award


Degree Level


LCSH subject

Mental Health -- Muslims



Proquest Document ID





St. Mary's University

Size or duration

xi, 102 pages

Document Type


First Advisor

Montilla, Estaban

Second Advisor

Atif, Said

Third Advisor

Wooten, Ray


This study was designed to investigate the relationships between mental health, psychological flexibility, and locus of control within the Muslim population, and how these variables are related to demographic characteristics such as gender, level of spirituality, and marital status. The sample of 235 participants was taken from the worldwide adult Muslim population. Mental health was measured by PROMIS-57 survey, psychological flexibility was measured by the AAQ-II survey, and locus of control was measured by the MHLC survey. All data were self-reported via online form. There was an inverse relationship between level of spirituality and poor mental health (high PROMIS-57 scores) and psychological inflexibility. Married people were less likely to be associated with poor mental health (high PROMIS-57 scores) and psychological inflexibility. Men were more likely to be associated with higher powerful others external locus. No difference in mental health was found based on gender. Mental health and psychological flexibility were positively correlated. Among the entire sample, poor mental health was correlated with greater reliance on powerful others and chance external loci of control. Powerful others locus of control was also correlated with psychological inflexibility. Psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of mental health. The findings of this study suggest that higher spirituality levels, that is, more devout practice and belief among Muslims may be beneficial for mental health. This health acceptance must be tempered, however, with an equally healthy internal locus of control, or sense of personal agency. There remains a significant dearth of rigorous studies of the Muslim population in the social sciences, and much work remains to be done.